Terrorism and Counter-terrorism in Switzerland-History, Radicalization, and Development of Measures

Author: Christophe May

Author affiliation(s): (1) Master in Terrorism Studies and Deradicalization, Pôle Universitaire Euclide (Euclid University), Bangui (Central African Republic) and Greater Banjul (Republic of the Gambia)

* Christophe May, Vaud, Lausanne, Switzerland, +41792625702, mach.master2@gmail.com

Keywords: Terrorism, Counterterrorism, Switzerland, Radicalization, Measures.

IGOs: European Union (EU), North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP), Rote Armee Fraktion (RAF), Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS), Islamic State (IS), lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, questioning (LGBTQ), Service de Renseignement de la Confédération (SRC), Terrorist Travelers (TETRA)


Abstract

The present paper gives an overview of how Switzerland faced terrorism in the past and how the country developed counterterrorism measures until today. The course offered by Leiden university covered a very large area in all studied topics and examples from all around the world were taken. It is interesting to compare these cases with Switzerland due to the specificities of this small, neutral, and often isolated country which is not known for being under high terrorist threat. However, it does not mean that Switzerland does not give attention to terrorism, extremism, and radicalization. Actually, it does, at his own level. Even though Switzerland is considered as a rich country, it is interesting to notice that it does not invest large financial resources while it would have the means. Are the current measures enough to efficiently prevent acts of extremism and reduce radicalization? This paper brings back the main terrorist events in Switzerland and gives the last policy measures, and developments taken by some police corps.

  1. Introduction

Although Switzerland is a small country compared with other states in Europe and worldwide, it has been relatively spared from terrorism. Switzerland has always been considered as a rich country and its growing economic development has attracted the management of some world’s largest fortunes, implicating it, sometimes, in relatively suspicious financial processes. Its principle of neutrality has also contributed to international recognition, attracting many international and humanitarian organizations, including the United Nations. Switzerland is deeply Christian and always had a strong religious involvement since its creation. Still today, the Vatican is under the protection of an exclusively Swiss guard. As well, Switzerland has a long humanitarian tradition and remains welcome land for foreigners. During the last decades, Switzerland had to face important immigration of Muslim foreigners, which generated some issues related to the extension of Islam in its territory. Because the Swiss citizens can give their opinion by a vote in case the government wants to modify legislation or implement a new law, some campaigns about religious changes involving Islam were somewhat sensitive. Despite its rejection to join the European Union and NATO, Switzerland remains strongly present at the international level, with involvement in international negotiations and light military presence abroad. However, the government sometimes adopts a very isolated policy.

Despite its favorable global position, is Switzerland facing radicalization? Does this represent an issue? Does terrorism threaten the country? This is what this paper will demonstrate in order to give a better overall understanding of the terrorism and counterterrorism situation in this small and often isolated country.

2.      Terrorism History in Switzerland

Terrorist attacks in Switzerland mainly began in 1969, with actions against Swissair, the Swiss national aviation company[1].

– On February 18, 1969, a Boeing 720-058B was attacked by a squad of four armed members of the PFLP (Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine), while taxiing at the Zurich International Airport. The perpetrators assaulted the aircraft with riffles, incendiary. grenades, and dynamite that did not explode[2]. On the twenty-eight occupants including eleven crew members, one person was killed[3].

– On February 21, 1970, a Convair CV-990 Coronado belonging to Swissair crashed in Würenlingen forest/Switzerland. The airplane took off in Zürich to Tel Aviv with forty-seven people onboard, including nine crew members. None survived[4]. A bomb exploded nine minutes after take-off, and the pilots unsuccessfully tried to fly back to Zürich. The explosive device was in a parcel service envelope stored in the cargo zone and was triggered by altitude[5]. The PFLP claimed the attack. It seems that the bomb was not supposed to be on that flight but on the one from Munich to Tel Aviv. The bomb was diverted to this aircraft due to a delay from its initially planned flight[6] [7].

– On September 6, 1970, a Swissair aircraft was highjacked and diverted to Zerqa in Jordan, along with two other airplanes from different companies[8]. The terrorists blew up the planes after all passengers were safely released[9]. The attacks were perpetrated by the PFLP[10].

– On September 19, 1979, the German group Rote Armee Fraktion (RAF) carried out a bank robbery in Zurich during which a woman was shot dead. Some members of this unit were hidden and supported by the Swiss group Bändlistrasse[11], composed of young Swiss men and named “Swiss RAF”. If the German RAF was mostly successful in its plans, the bomb attacks planned by the Swiss RAF all failed[12] [13].

– In March, 2014, a pro-ISIS (Islamic State of Iraq and Syria) Iraqi cell, composed of people between twenty-eight and thirty-three years old, was dismantled by Swiss authorities. The group was planning a terrorist attack with explosives and toxic gas. Also, they allegedly helped around forty Swiss or Swiss-resident jihadists to travel to the Middle East and to join ISIS[14].

– On December 11, 2015, the Geneva Police arrested two Syrian individuals. Traces of explosive were discovered in their car[15]. In addition, they were under suspicion of the manufacture, concealment and transport of explosives or toxic gases. They have not been clearly linked to the four men with suspected ties to the IS (Islamic State) group who were wanted by Swiss authorities at this time[16] [17].

– On August 13, 2017, a twenty-eight years old man was arrested in Annemasse/France, a small city located at the Swiss border. The following message was found in his mobile phone (in French): “We are going to blow ourselves up in Lausanne and in a church in Geneva, we see each other in Paradise, take care of my wife, give me the law to say to give allegiance to the Caliphate of Daesh[18] [19].

– In November, 2017, ten people were arrested in France and Switzerland, among them a twenty-three years old Colombian woman. Her husband, a Swiss citizen, is suspected of being the head of a presumed terrorist cell[20]. They were planning various attacks on Swiss cities and wanted to derail passenger trains and attack nightclubs in order to kill as many non-Muslim people as possible, and to attack venues that served alcohol and hosted events for LGBTQ communities. Attacks on Christian churches were also discussed[21].

– On December 29, 2018, a dual Swiss and Spanish national was arrested in Morocco on suspicion of aiding terrorists who beheaded two hikers (a Danish and a Norwegian) in the Atlas Mountains[22]. He converted to Islam in 2011 in Geneva’s Grand Mosque; is conversion was quickly followed by radicalization[23]. Furthermore, this individual was allegedly part of an operation to recruit people to commit terrorist acts in Morocco[24].

– On January 10, 2019, another dual Swiss and British national was arrested in North of Morocco during the investigation about the murders of two Nordic tourists[25].

For the first time, a direct threat against Switzerland was mentioned by IS in January 2015 and then in November the same year. In a propaganda video, the swiss flag appears among others and the group called its fighters to act by terrorizing European populations, including Switzerland[26].

3.      Radicalization and Swiss Foreign Fighters

As observed above, despite the fact that Switzerland is a small country, it had to face terrorism like many other countries. Even if it did not suffer from any terrorist act since years, the radicalization is present and still an issue. According to the data given by the SRC (Swiss Intelligence Cell) for February 2019, there are currently ninety-two people from Switzerland, among them thirty-one individuals holding a Swiss passport, in the Iraqi-Syrian zone[27]. Since 2001, seventy-seven departures have been reported to Syria and Iraq, fifteen to Somalia, Afghanistan and Pakistan, and one to the Philippines. Twenty-five of them are confirmed being deceased and thirteen are confirmed to have return[28]. As stated by Markus Seiler, the former director of the SRC, most of the jihad travelers from Switzerland are of foreign origin but Swiss converts to Islam are also feeding their ranks[29].

Among the examples, some mediatized cases can be mentioned:

– In February 2011, Majd N., a nineteen years old student, Jordanian refugee, left Switzerland and joined Jabhat al-Nosra in Syria. He was later reported killed in Iraq[30] but as well having been executed by IS members in Syria[31]. The circumstances of his death remain unclear.

– In 2013, a thirty years old Swiss citizen converted to Islam was radicalized via internet and left his country to Syria in order to wage the holy war alongside Al Qaeda. He could easily join the jihad with the support of a Franco-Belgian network. He came back after three months and was immediately placed under investigation and questioned by the police[32].

– At the end of 2014, Valdet Gashi left for Syria where he joined ISIS. The twenty-nine years old German kickboxer champion was originally from Kosovo and established a sports school in Switzerland where he had trained three young men between sixteen and twenty years old; all attended the same mosque and left for Syria to join ISIS[33]. Valdet Gashi was killed on June 2015 in unknown circumstances[34].

– In 2015, a Swiss woman followed her husband in Iraq and joined IS. Both were arrested by the Kurdish Forces in January 2018. She now wants to come back to Switzerland with her little daughter[35].

Other sources emphasize the fact some jihadists coming from Switzerland are taking higher ranks within IS, which could oblige the government to re-evaluate the threat level[36].

Even if Switzerland does not play a significant role in the terrorism environment, facts show that radicalization is present and still a current matter. In addition, it proves that terrorist groups are still following the evolution of Swiss policy, reacting on decisions that could reduce or slow down the extension of Islam. Thus, measures have to be taken in order to avoid possible future cases. Extremism and radicalization are here; not only through internet but as well from propaganda within some mosques, in all three linguistic areas of Switzerland, particularly in Lausanne[37], Geneva[38], Winterthur[39], and Lugano[40].

4.      Counterterrorism Measures

Despite the fact that the Swiss Armed Forces are not involved in the Afghanistan or Iraq conflicts, some terrorist groups keep an eye on Switzerland. Indeed, on November 29, 2009, a popular initiative requested a vote about the constructions of minarets. 57,5% of the population showed its opposition[41] which generated the prohibition on building minaret in the entire swiss territory. This vote is an example of a how the threat level can rapidly increase, like the vote for ban the burqas in public[42].

Extremism, radicalization, and foreign fighters are topics that should be observed under different angles in order to be able to provide the most accurate and efficient reactions. Combatting extremism requests different measures than combatting radicalization or avoiding the departure of Swiss people for the jihad. But decisions cannot be taken without a precise overview of each case, individually. What are the best ways to gather information? Intelligence, cooperation between security and policy entities, links with other nations, confidence within all key players, exchanges of information, and so on. Despite the very light impact of Switzerland in international counterterrorism, the country established some measures to reduce the threat and manage the return of its foreign fighter citizens.

From a general overview, Switzerland is domestically engaged in four strategic fields of action: prevention, repression, protection, and crisis preparedness[43].

At the national level, in its “Plan on preventing violent extremism” published in 2016, the Swiss government mentioned the following spheres of action: contributing to prevent violent extremism policymaking and capacity building, developing and promoting contextual knowledge, dialogue and conflict prevention, strengthening good governance, human rights and the rule of law, engaging communities, empowering youth and women, education, training, skills development and promoting employment, strategic communication, internet and social media[44].

Switzerland has been accused to minimize the terrorist threat for a long time and this could be easily understood. Indeed, the government created a joined force under the name of TETRA for “Terrorist Travelers” only in 2014. This team bring together staffs from the Swiss Intelligence Service, Federal Police, State Secretariat for Migrants, Federal Prosecutor’s Office, and Cantonal Police Commanders[45]. The program describes the following steps in the process: Radicalization – Detection – Investigation – Criminal proceedings – Conviction – Enforcement – Reintegration[46].

In addition, the Federal Council established a cell called “Return of Jihad” as part of the national plan of action to strengthen the fight against terrorism. Before its creation, the focus was almost only on propaganda, recruitment and support to jihadists[47]. Taking in account that the return of foreign fighters requests a real awareness and clear deradicalization program is the first step towards success. However, the difficulty lies in the arrest of all jihadists returning. Indeed, it is impossible to be sure that all individuals representing a potential threat have been identify and are under surveillance.

At the cantonal level, most of the police corps did not reorganized themselves according to the evolution of terrorism. Some changes occurred, but nothing significant. Among other improvements, the cantonal police equipped some of their agents with automatic assault rifles, not available daily but in extreme emergency situation only[48]. In addition, the medical kits have been improved by adding, for example, tourniquets[49]. Some cantons offer a hotline to prevent extremism. Everyone can call in case of suspicious behavior or to obtain information about radicalization and extremism[50].

As last point, it is interesting to come back in the 1970s and to have a look on how the Swiss government negotiated with the PLO. This tactic is as well a kind of counterterrorism measure; the ethic of this process will not be analyzed in this paper. Multiple sources claim that in 1970, the Swiss Foreign Affairs Minister Pierre Graber met with PLO officials in Geneva to negotiate a pact offering diplomatic support for the Palestinian cause in return for assurances to be spared from attacks[51]. Years later, under public and press pressure, the Swiss government investigated the case[52]. Despite extensive researches, this information has never been officially neither confirmed nor denied. Today, it is still unknown if this secret pact was agreed or not.

5.      Policy Recommendations

Policy is one of the main tools against radicalization and management of the terrorist threat. But politicians cannot be efficient without strong cooperation with all actors involved in national and international security.

Keeping a deep observation on mosques known for having recently radicalized members and with unclear founds[53] must be maintained in order to stop the development of extremism networks. Due to the current key player’s weak power of action[54], it is important to increase the possibilities of investigations and surveillance in case of suspicions. Switzerland has a direct connection with Balkans, known for having been an important source of extremists. A significant number of refugees from the last war arrived in Switzerland and the important Balkan diaspora still have strong links with their country. Many of these refugees obtained Swiss nationality and are frequently traveling to Kosovo or Bosnia and Herzegovina visiting their relatives. Thus, it is very easy for extremists to build a network between Switzerland and Balkans.

If mosques could be a mean of radicalization, the internet should not be forgotten and a huge development on cyber surveillance and investigation should be rapidly established. Internet became a major propaganda tool for terrorist groups that are permanently developing communication strategies and are spreading high-quality videos. According to researchers Mia Bloom and Chelsea Daymon of Georgia State University, “use of new technologies and its risks should not be overlooked, especially considering that encrypted platforms have become a primary means for radicalization, recruitment, and planning[55].” This is why Switzerland must increase its focus on cyber investigation and have specialized experts in this area.

Can deterrence be used as a tool in order to limit the departure of foreign fighters? Even if it is not the case, it is important for a government to spread a clear message about the consequences in joining a terrorist organization. This point is heavily missing in Switzerland. Indeed, the case of a Swiss Army Sergeant who joined an IS militia in Syria from 2013 to 2015 is a clear example. Back in Switzerland, he was given a three-month suspended sentence and ordered to pay a fine of 500 Swiss francs ($502)[56].

6.      Conclusion

Switzerland is often seen as an independent country, sometimes close-minded and rejecting everything that comes from outside, and this vision is understandable. But despite its discretion and even if it is at a very low level compared to some other countries, Switzerland has to deal with extremism, radicalization, and terrorism. It is a chance to having been preserved but the country should take the opportunity to learn from other countries which did not have the same chance.

As seen, even if Switzerland is not involved in military operations in Afghanistan and Iraq, its attractive banking system and the wish of its citizen to forbid the extension of Islam signs by forbidden the constriction of minarets and banning the burqas in public generate a threat.

Even if there are only a few individuals who joined terrorist groups abroad, they should be considered as a potential threat. The way how they were radicalized should be analyzed and measures against radicalization through mosques and the internet should be developed.

The current policy measures are already a good start; however, it is essential to maintain a high level of cooperation between Intelligence agencies, and all key players. In addition, regular training on terrorist attack scenarios could be an excellent way to strengthen cooperation between emergency services and investigation teams and to keep everybody updated about the terrorism situation.

Conflict of Interest

The author declares no conflict of interest.

Acknowledgment

I wish to acknowledge the support and direction provided by EUCLID University towards the completion of this paper.

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[[4]] ma RTS “Coronado SR330” available at https://www.rts.ch/archives/tv/information/carrefour/3475190-coronado-sr330.html (accessed on 15 March 2019)

[[5]] SWI swissinfo “Zone d’ombre autour d’un crash en 1970” available at https://www.swissinfo.ch/fre/affaire-olp_zones-d-ombre-autour-d-un-crash-en-1970/41909614 (accessed on 15 March 2019)

[[6]] World Radio Switzerland “Swiss Up! Terrorism In The 1970s In Switzerland” available at https://soundcloud.com/world-radio-switzerland/swiss-up-terrorism-in-the-1970s-in-switzerland (ccessed on 15 March 2019)

[[7]] PLAY RTS “Swissair, atterissage forcé” available at https://www.rts.ch/play/radio/helvetica/audio/swissair-atterrissage-force-35?id=4657225 (accessed on 15 March 2019)

[[8]] SWI swissinfo “The day Palestinian militants attacked Zurich Airport” available at https://www.swissinfo.ch/eng/on-this-day_the-day-palestinian-militants-attacked-zurich-airport/44764660 (accessed on 15 March 2019)

[[9]] Plaw Avery, “Targeting Terrorists: A License to Kill?” Routledge: United Kingdom, Ashgate Publishing, 2013, pp. 44.

[[10]] ma RTS “Détournement à Zarka” available at https://www.rts.ch/archives/7716552-detournement-a-zarka.html (accessed on 15 March 2019)

[[11]] hls “Terrorisme” available at http://www.hls-dhs-dss.ch/textes/d/D17353.php (accessed on 15 March 2019)

[[12]] Aargauer Zeitung “ Die RAF terrorisierte Deutschland, die Schweiz wähnte sich in Sicherheit – bis es knallte” available at https://www.aargauerzeitung.ch/schweiz/die-raf-terrorisierte-deutschland-die-schweiz-waehnte-sich-in-sicherheit-bis-es-knallte-131667137 (accessed on 15 March 2019)

[[13]] SRF “Schweizer RAF: Halbstarke Männer, missglückte Bombenanschläge” available at https://www.srf.ch/kultur/gesellschaft-religion/schweizer-raf-halbstarke-maenner-missglueckte-bombenanschlaege (accessed on 15 March 2019)

[[14]] International Business Time “Switzerland: Iraqi Isis Cell Arrested for Planning Terror Attack” available at https://translate.google.com/#view=home&op=translate&sl=fr&tl=en&text=Switzerland%3A%20Iraqi%20Isis%20Cell%20Arrested%20for%20Planning%20Terror%20Attack (accessed on 15 March 2019)

[[15]] Tribune de Genève “Deux Syriens arrêtés par la police genevoise” available at https://www.tdg.ch/geneve/actu-genevoise/Deux-Syriens-arretes-par-la-police-genevoise/story/18077837 (accessed on 15 March 2019)

[[16]] WHNT “Swiss Police arrest two Syrians with trace amounts of explosives” available at https://translate.google.com/?hl=fr&tab=TT#view=home&op=translate&sl=en&tl=fr&text=Swiss%20Police%20arrest%20two%20Syrians%20with%20trace%20amounts%20of%20explosives (accessed on 15 March 2019)

[[17]] CBC “2 Syrians with reported traces of explosives caught in Geneva amid anti-ISIS sweep” available at https://www.cbc.ca/news/world/geneva-arrests-syrians-1.3362424 (accessed on 15 March 2019)

[[18]] 24 heures “Ils voulaient se faire exploser à Lausanne et Genève” available at https://www.24heures.ch/suisse/suisse-romande/double-attentat-suisse-romande-preparation/story/31631243 (accessed on 16 March 2019)

[[19]] Le New S “Extremist vows terrorist attacks in Lausanne and Geneva” available at https://lenews.ch/2017/09/27/extremist-vows-terrorist-attacks-in-lausanne-and-geneva/ (accessed on 16 March 2019)

[[20]] RTS “Une arrestation en Suisse en lien avec une opération antiterroriste en France” available at https://www.rts.ch/info/suisse/9063946-une-arrestation-en-suisse-en-lien-avec-une-operation-antiterroriste-en-france.html (accessed on 16 March 2019)

[[21]] SWI swissinfo “Terror suspects discussed attacks on Swiss nightclubs and trains” available at https://www.swissinfo.ch/eng/business/november-arrest_-terror-suspects-discussed-attacks-on-swiss-nightclubs-and-trains-/43907806 (accessed on 16 March 2019)

[[22]] SWI swissinfo “Swiss suspect arrested over killing of Nordic tourists in Morocco” available at https://www.swissinfo.ch/eng/society/morocco_swiss-man-arrested-in-connection-with-beheading-of-nordic-tourists/44649344 (accessed on 16 March 2019)

[[23]] Morocco World News “Hispano-Swiss Suspect Involved in Imlil Murders is a Muslim Convert” available at https://www.moroccoworldnews.com/2018/12/262022/hispano-swiss-suspect-imlil-murders/ (accessed on 16 March 2019)

[[24]] SWI swissinfo “Second Swiss arrested in Morocco over tourist beheadings” available at https://www.swissinfo.ch/eng/society/double-murder_second-swiss-arrested-in-morocco-over-tourist-beheadings-/44673532 (accessed on 16 March 2019)

[[25]] Ibid

[[26]] Le Temps “Une vidéo attribuée à l’Etat islamique mentionne à nouveau la Suisse” available at https://www.letemps.ch/suisse/une-video-attribuee-letat-islamique-mentionne-nouveau-suisse (accessed on 22 March 2019)

[[27]] Confédération Suisse “Voyageurs du Djihad” available at https://www.vbs.admin.ch/fr/themes/recherche-renseignements/voyageurs-djihad.html (accessed on 22 March 2019)

[[28]] Ibid

[[29]] 24heures “En un an, les djihadistes suisses ont doublé” available at https://www.24heures.ch/suisse/En-un-an-les-djihadistes-suisses-ont-double/story/13457140 (accessed on 22 March 2019)

[[30]] Le Temps “De la Somalie à la Syrie: le djihad assumé du jeune Biennois Majd N.” available at https://www.letemps.ch/suisse/somalie-syrie-djihad-assume-jeune-biennois-majd (accessed on 22 March 2019)

[[31]] Le Journal du Jura “L’ancien gymnasien djihadiste tué en Syrie” http://www.journaldujura.ch/nouvelles-en-ligne/region/lancien-gymnasien-djihadiste-tue-en-syrie (accessed on 22 March 2019)

[[32]] ma RTS “Le djihadiste suisse parti en Syrie a utilisé un réseau franco-belge” available at https://www.rts.ch/info/suisse/5751306-le-djihadiste-suisse-parti-en-syrie-a-utilise-un-reseau-franco-belge.html (accessed on 22 March 2019)

[[33]] RT Question More “World Muay Thai boxing champion from Germany joins ISIS in Syria” available at https://www.rt.com/news/264949-german-kickboxer-join-isis/ (accessed on 22 March 2019)

[[34]] SRF “Winterthurer Thaibox-Trainer und IS-Dschihadist Gashi ist tot” available at https://www.srf.ch/news/schweiz/winterthurer-thaibox-trainer-und-is-dschihadist-gashi-ist-tot (accessed on 22 March 2019)

[[35]] Euronews “Une djihadiste suisse demande son retour” available at https://fr.euronews.com/2018/07/15/une-djihadiste-suisse-demande-son-retour (accessed on 22 March 2019)

[[36]] Les Observateurs “Le Matin: « Des petits Suisses de l’EI prennent du galon »” available at https://lesobservateurs.ch/tag/valdet-gashi/ (accessed on 22 March 2019)

[[37]] Les Observateurs “La Mosquée de Lausanne radicalise en toute quiétude” available at https://lesobservateurs.ch/2018/07/16/la-mosquee-de-lausanne-radicalise-en-toute-quietude/ (accessed on 22 March 2019)

[[38]] Le Temps “La propagande pénètre nos mosquées” available at https://www.letemps.ch/monde/propagande-penetre-nos-mosquees (accessed on 22 March 2019)

[[39]] SWI swissinfo “Tensions à la mosquée de Winterthur” available at https://www.swissinfo.ch/fre/societe/islamisme-_tensions-%C3%A0-la-mosqu%C3%A9e-de-winterthur/42979018 (accessed on 22 March 2019)

[[40]] Le Temps “Un islamiste tessinois condamné à Bellinzone” available at https://www.letemps.ch/suisse/un-islamiste-tessinois-condamne-bellinzone (accessed on 22 March 2019)

[[41]] ma RTS “Les Suisses interdisent les minarets” available at https://www.rts.ch/info/suisse/1071606-les-suisses-interdisent-les-minarets.html (accessed on 22 March 2019)

[[42]] The Times of Israel “Swiss region overwhelmingly votes for ‘burka ban” available at https://www.timesofisrael.com/swiss-region-overwhelmingly-votes-for-burka-ban/ (accessed on 22 March 2019)

[[43]] ETH Zürich “The Concept of Countering Violent Extremism” available at http://www.css.ethz.ch/en/services/digital-library/articles/article.html/c9af6b37-c6f9-4ca2-a0d9-ed9544ae72bd (accessed on 22 March 2019)

[[44]] Confédération Suisse, “Switzerland’s Foreign Policy Action Plan on Preventing Violent Extremism”, Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs: Bern, FDFA, 2016, pp. 9-19.

[[45]] Le Temps “Qui sont ces résidents suisses attirés par le djihad?” available at https://www.letemps.ch/suisse/residents-suisses-attires-djihad (accessed on 22 March 2019)

[[46]] Federal Office of Police FEDPOL “Switzerland is proactive” available at https://www.fedpol.admin.ch/fedpol/en/home/terrorismus/terrorismus-aktuelle-lage/schweiz-ist-aktiv.html (accessed on 22 March 2019)

[[47]] SWI swissinfo “La Suisse veut encadrer le retour des djihadistes” available at https://www.swissinfo.ch/fre/islamisme-radical_la-suisse-veut-encadrer-le-retour-des-djihadistes-/44067448 (accessed on 22 March 2019)

[[48]] Tribune de Genève “Les polices cantonales s’équipent en fusils d’assaut” available at https://www.tdg.ch/suisse/polices-cantonales-s-equipent-fusils-dassaut/story/15253455 (accessed on 22 March 2019)

[[49]] 24 heures “Contre le terrorisme, la police étoffe son arsenal” available at https://www.24heures.ch/vaud-regions/Contre-le-terrorisme-la-police-etoffe-son-arsenal/story/16305297 (accessed on 22 March 2019)

[[50]] Etat de Vaud “Doutes, inquiétudes ou questions sur la radicalisation et l’extrémisme violent” available at https://www.vd.ch/themes/soutien-social-et-aides-financieres/prevention-de-la-radicalisation/radicalisation-et-extremisme-violent/ (accessed on 22 March 2019)

[[51]] SWI swissinfo “Report reveals clandestine Swiss deal with PLO” available at https://www.swissinfo.ch/eng/risky-compromise_report-reveals-clandestine-swiss-deal-with-plo/41906002 (accessed on 22 March 2019)

[[52]] Reuters “Swiss investigating alleged secret 1970 PLO deal” available at https://www.reuters.com/article/us-swiss-plo-deal-idUSKCN0VS1UJ (accessed on 22 March 2019)

[[53]] SWI swissinfo “Who funds Swiss mosques?” available at https://www.swissinfo.ch/eng/transparency_who-funds-swiss-mosques/42776404 (accessed on 22 March 2019)

[[54]] Tribune de Genève “La difficile surveillance de la grande mosquée” available at https://www.tdg.ch/geneve/actu-genevoise/difficile-surveillance-grande-mosquee/story/13909673 (accessed on 22 March 2019)

[[55]] World Economic Forum “What we can learn from ISIS about using the internet to counter terrorism” available at https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2018/09/what-we-can-learn-from-isis-about-using-the-internet-to-counter-terrorism/ (accessed on 22 March 2019)

[[56]] The Local “Swiss court fines ex-sergeant for fighting ISIS in Syria” available at https://www.thelocal.ch/20190222/swiss-court-fines-ex-sergeant-for-fighting-isis-in-syria (accessed on 22 March 2019)

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