Conflict Resolution and Peace Building Initiatives in West Africa: A Study of the Role of ECOWAS in Managing the Malian Crisis from 2012 to 2016

1.     Introduction In March 2012, Mali’s government was overthrown in a military coup. Insurgents, capitalizing on the ensuing power vacuum, seized much of the country’s vast and sparsely populated northern territory. As of early January 2013, three loosely connected Islamist extremist groups – including Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM), a U.S.-designated Foreign Terrorist […]

The US-China Trade War, the Huawei Battle, and its Effects on the World

Abstract: After decades of trying to create positive diplomatic relations, a trade war broke out between the United States and China. After tariffs placed on Chinese imports in the US, China retaliated with their own tariffs. A year into the trade war, US President Donald Trump placed sanctions on Chinese-made Huawei phones. This changed the […]

United Nations Preventive Diplomacy: Evolution and Practice

Abstract: Violent conflict can have a devastating impact on individuals, communities and societies. This is evidenced by the destruction wrought by the two world wars, which claimed millions of lives, required billions of dollars for reconstruction of conflict-affected countries, and continues to have a profound physical and psychological impact on the international state system today. […]

The transition from cooking with charcoal to LPG gas in Rwanda (2018-2024)

Abstract The problematic of using clean cooking fuel is a new concept in Rwanda, where more than the majority of the population lives in a rural area and use wood for all heating needs. With the government engaging in improving the health and protection of the environment, it becomes mandatory to look for alternative fuels […]

The Bhalla-Cleenewerck Journal Efficiency Factor, BC-JEF©: A Novel Author-Centric Metric For Journal Efficiency

ABSTRACT According to the English definition, “efficiency” is the state or the quality of being able to accomplish something with the least waste of time and effort. Concerning the Journals, “efficiency” signifies providing the submitting authors with a peer-review decision with a least loss of time and academic value. The “efficiency”, on the journal’s part, also […]

International Litigation: Doctrine of Lex Fori Vs. Lex Loci

1.      Introduction The subject of international litigation or private international law mainly covers three areas. It covers the international or inter-territorial jurisdiction of courts for civil or commercial litigation, the choice of law to be applied to the cases and finally the recognition and enforceability of foreign case law to the matters before the court.[1] […]

“Afriwestism”: A Concept To Address The Failure Of Foreign And Local Development Paradigms Of Poverty Alleviation In Africa

1.      Background The late 1980s and early 1990s are described as a period of adjusting for the developing world, due to the widespread economic reforms. The advent of these reforms followed economic, political, and social problems, including, but not limited to, the inability to honor international financial obligations, adverse balance of payments, low productivity, and […]