An Open Access Article

Type: Research Article
Volume: 2024
Keywords: Paris Agreement, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP), Climate Change, Environment, Council of Parties (COP), First Global Stocktake (GST), Council of Parties (COP) 28
Relevant IGOs: United Nations, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, UNESCO, United Nations Environmental Protection, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

Article History at IRPJ

Date Received: January 1, 2024
Date Revised:
Date Accepted: 2024-01-08
Date Published: January 8, 2024
Assigned ID: 20240108

COP 28 – The First Global Stocktake – A Ray of Hope

Author: Charalee Graydon

Assistant Professor, EUCLID (Euclid University)


Corresponding Author:


One of the key aspects of The Paris Agreement is to establish a method to evaluate the progress of collective efforts to meet the objectives of the Agreement to lower CO2 in the atmosphere, to mitigate and adapt to change occurring in the climate, and to set up finance systems to respond to climate change. The Global Stocktake (GST) provides an assessment method for that purpose. This article reviews the Paris Agreement and the outcomes of the first Global Stocktake completed at COP 28 in 2023. It outlines the methodology used for the GST and comments on the input of Parties and non-Party stakeholders to the  GST. It illustrates that multilateralism provides hope to meet the goals set out in the Paris Agreement.

This article provides information of the nature of the GST and shows how Parties and non-Party interests contribute to the GST to keep emissions within reach of 1.5℃. It invites academics and policy makers to share the objectives of the First Global Stocktake to transition away from fossil fuels in their research, developing their courses, and creating climate change policy proposals.


Part 1:Introduction

The Paris Agreement establishes the procedures for the Global Stocktake (GST) in Article 14.[1] The Article indicates the implementation of the Paris Agreement’s long-term goals is assessed periodically, with the first global stocktake in 2023 at COP 28 hosted by the United Arab Emirates in Dubai. The synthesis report produced in September 2023 showed that climate action needs to be increased to meet the goals of the Paris Agreement. The 2023 Global Stocktake provided key messages to the Parties to increase climate change ambition. This is referred to as ratcheting up climate action for the next five years when another stocktake will take place. This includes seeking greater commitments by Parties in establishing their Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs), emphasizing the importance of a circular economy in achieving climate goals, and setting key global actions required to achieve net-zero emissions to achieve Paris Agreement goals.

A main objective of the Paris Agreement, as  set out in Article 2, is to hold the increase of global average temperatures to well below 2℃ above pre-industrial levels while pursuing efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5℃. [2] The sixth Report of the International Panel on Climate Change recognized the need to lower emissions prior to 2030, made it clear that moving beyond 1.5 ℃ is likely to result in more extreme weather events such as floods, heatwaves, and droughts. [3]

As well as setting Nationally Determined Contributions, Parties to the Agreement need to communicate how they will build resilience to adapt to climate change impacts. Although not mandatory, Parties can prepare long term strategies to provide information about future climate change goals. The COP28 First Global Stocktake  provides a clear path for them to use in preparing these strategies.

The Paris Agreement provides a framework to address capacity building, finance, and technology development. It affirms that developed countries  will lead in  providing financial assistance to counties less developed and more vulnerable to climate change impacts. It sets out that finance is required for investments in methods that will reduce emissions and for adaptation to the impacts of climate change. These matters are reviewed in the First Global Stocktake and suggestions made on their development.

Also reviewed in the 2023 Global Stocktake is the importance of technology in moving forward the goals to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Both in relation to reducing emissions and in responding to climate change impacts, technology plays a significant role.

The importance of capacity building remains a crucial element of the first global stocktake review. Information is set out as to how developed countries can share information to build capacity for countries lacking capacity to deal with matters relating to climate change.

Part 2: The Methodology for the Global Stocktake

2.1 Assessing Progress

The first global stocktake assessed the progress  made toward the goals set out in the Paris Agreement of cutting greenhouse gas emissions, building reliance on climate impacts, and aligning finance and support for climate action. It also offered ideas (a roadmap) to combat the climate crisis. This includes providing guidance and support to countries with their climate actions and nationally determined contributions (NDCs) for 2025. Multilateralism is shown to be a goal for achieving these objectives.

2.2 Providing Transparency

The Paris Agreement provides a transparency framework where Parties can report on the actions taken to meet the Agreement’s goals for mitigation and adaptation as well as the support they have provided or received. This forms part of the recorded information provided for the Stocktake.

The GST technical phase concluded in September 2023 with the publication of a synthesis report of the GST’s technical dialogues. The opportunity to address this report took place at COP28, which culminated in a consensus agreement.

Part 3: Key components of the Stocktake.

Key components of the Stocktake are set out in an article by the UNFCCC that helps explain the information the Parties had when they meet at the Council of Parties event in Dubai in November and December 2023.[4] The information shows the state of greenhouse gas emissions by sources and removals that include sinks and mitigation actions of the Parties. It reviews the Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC’s) as well as adaptation efforts that have been employed. The components closely follow the provisions of the Paris Agreement for each of these elements. This shows that matters of finance flows and  technology play important roles in information collection and preparation for the global stocktake.

3.1 Information Collection and Preparation

The stockade consists of three components. The first is information collection and preparation, CMA3 (November 2021) to Subsidiary Body (SB) 58, being the 58th meeting (June 2023).

This step gathers, compiles and synthesizes information provided for the technical assessment component.

3.2 Technical Assessment

The second component is the technical assessment SB56 (June 2022) – SB58 (June 2023).

This step takes stock of the implementation of the Paris Agreement and assesses the collective progress made toward achieving the purpose and goals of the Agreement. This is coordinated with the release of IPCC reports. Information indicates that the technical assessment phase included three technical dialogues which considered matters such as equity, and the best available science.

3.3 Consideration of Outputs

The third component is the consideration of outputs CMA 5 (November 2023).This component focuses on discussing the findings of the technical assessment. It looked at the national contributions and actions under the terms of the Paris Agreement, as well as what climate action and international cooperation had taken place. This was presented and discussed by the Parties with events chaired by a high-level committee made up of the CMA Presidencies and Chairs of relevant Subsidiary Bodies.

Part 4: Witnessing the Stocktake at COP28

As a representative of Euclid University, an Intergovernmental Organization, I attended COP 28 as an observer of the COP events which included visiting  country Party pavilions and discussing events with other COP attendees, attending speaker engagements such as the opening remarks of the conference, and observing High-Level meetings which took place during COP28. My attendance during week one of COP28 was limited but provided an opportunity to witness work being done by Parties, and presentations by people invited to make presentations at COP 28.

The High-Level events took place on aspects of the Paris Agreement goals. These included,  mitigation, adaptation, and means of implementation. Party and Non-Party representatives were heard and ideas for course corrections were provided. Speeding up  actions to limit greenhouse gas emissions was recognized as key. Similarly, the importance of developing alternatives to the use of fossil fuels such as electric vehicle development, CO2 removal programs, and developing finance initiatives for  countries that have suffered damage from extreme weather events were topics discussed.

My attendance at COP28 illustrated that Parties and Non-Party Stakeholders are engaged in assessing issues about how to meet the goals of the Paris Agreement with a view to limiting greenhouse gas emissions. The importance of Parties providing bold NDCs to step up targets of CO2 reduction and to cover all greenhouse gases was highlighted. Areas of mitigation, adaptation, and finance were  reviewed in these sessions, along with discussions of there being a just and equitable reduction of fossil fuels. Also discussed was scaling up finance to meet the annual 1 billion mitigation target and building better food and agricultural sectors.

Part 5:The first Global Stocktake

5.1. The Announcement

Following two weeks of intense discussion and negotiation, the outcome of the first global stocktake was announced on the morning of December 13, 2023. I recall ending my review of the progress made by the Parties on the evening of December 12, 2023, believing the Parties may not be able to move past a decision calling for a reduction of the use of fossil fuels. The Parties , however, worked past my ability to remain awake, to finalize their discussions to arrive at agreement.

I woke the next day to the announcement that the Parties had reached a consensus to transition away from fossil fuels in energy systems, to be completed in a just, orderly, and equitable manner. [5]

The President of COP28, UAE COP28 team, and the UNFCCC, had guided 198 Parties to a consensus agreement. They had also provided a  thorough Stocktake of what had been done by Parties since 2015 as well as details agreed to by the Parties of what needs to be done. This announcement provides the ray of hope needed to continue the  goals of the Paris Agreement to keep emissions below 2℃ above pre-industrial levels while pursuing efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5℃.

News reports write about the decision “ to transition away from fossil fuels,” but to better understand this phrase, one needs to review the provisions of the first global stocktake that contains these words. It is important to know the consensus agreement recognizes the science that underlies the need to keep temperatures below 2℃ above pre-industrial levels while pursuing efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5℃. The consensus includes information to show the  inclusion of principal elements of mitigation, adaptation and loss and damage, and its provisions refer to and blend with the provisions of the Paris Agreement.

This article does not provide details of the first global Stocktake as it was crafted with precision by expert delegates from Parties from countries attending COP28, and with the guidance of UNFCCC representatives. It does, however, provide information from the Stocktake to show readers the acknowledgements made by the Parties at COP 28. It also seeks to show matters of the Stocktake which provide material that support actions to keep the  Paris Agreement 1.5℃ goal alive. In addition, it  looks at matters that form the basis of ongoing negotiations and preparation for the next Stocktake in five years.

5.2 The Stocktake Provisions

The opening paragraphs of the First Global Stocktake refer to the Article 2 of the Paris Agreement and the principles for the Global Stocktake set out in Article 14. Also important is recognition of the value of multilateralism in accordance with the values of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and Paris Agreement.

Criticism of shortcomings have been voiced following the Dubai consensus agreement, but as stated by the COP28 President, although Parties at COP28 reached consensus, there is more to be done. [6] Also, it is important to recognize that the future of transitioning away from fossil fuels rests in the hands of the Parties to the consensus, Parties not part of the consensus, as well as  businesses, cities, civil society, and other Stakeholders.

The Stocktake reiterates material from the UNFCCC and Paris Agreement treaties  that climate change is a common concern of humankind and notes the importance of the integrity of ecosystems and the need to protect biodiversity. As it should, the Stocktake covers the objectives set out in the Paris Agreement to determine the status of the collective action to 2023. While it has been found that the present level of action of the Parties is not sufficient to meet the 1.5℃ goal, it provides guidance as to what needs to be done by Parties to keep this goal alive.

It provides a roadmap giving humanity the ray of hope that Parties can move closer to the 1.5℃. goal in 2030 and 2050.[7] This focuses on ratcheting up ambition to mitigate, adapt, and transform past habits into workable actions for living better with the reality of climate change and its impacts.

5.3 Context and Cross Cutting Considerations

These considerations, in addition to reaffirming the temperature goals of the Paris Agreement, recognized that despite mitigation, and adaptation attempts that have been implemented, Parties have not collectively made sufficient impact towards achieving the Paris Agreement goals. It was recognized that 2023 had been the warmest year on record, and that impacts from climate change are accelerating emphasizing the need for climate action to meet the Paris Agreement goals.

The section commits to accelerating such action in accordance with the recognition of provisions of equity and the common but different responsibilities of Parties  based on national circumstances, recognized in the Paris Agreement. It refers to  promoting sustainable development and eradicating poverty.

The report refers to the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and notes  “with alarm and serious concern” the findings of the IPCC that:

  1. a) human activities, principally through emissions of greenhouse gases, have unequivocally caused global warming of about 1.1℃,
  2. b) that human-caused climate change impacts are already being felt in every region across the globe, with those who have contributed the least to climate change being most vulnerable to the impacts, and together with losses and damages, will increase with every increment of warming,
  3. c) that the most observed adaptation responses are fragmented, incremental, sector specific and unequally distribute across regions, and that, despite the progress made, significant adaptation gaps still exist across sectors and regions and will continue to grow under current levels of implementation..[8]

The findings of the IPCC that mitigation efforts can increase the pace of emissions reductions when aligned with sufficient financing to close the financing gaps by an array of investors are noted in the report. Also recognized is that sharing technologies plays a vital role in advancing .methos used to reduce or manage emissions.

5.4 Collective Progress towards Goals of Paris Agreement

This section of the Stocktake focuses on the collective progress towards achieving the purposes and goals of the Paris Agreement, specifically Article 2, paragraph 1 ( a-c). This focuses on updating and enhancing nationally determined action.

5.5 The Goal of Mitigation

This section of the Stocktake reviews mitigation, adaptation, and means of implementation and support. It, again, refers to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2023. Climate Change 2023: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups, I, II, and III, to the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.[9]

The mitigation provisions indicate that while the Parties have made progress, there is concern that proposed global greenhouse gas emissions are not in line with the temperature goal of the Paris Agreement. Nationally determined contributions  lack what is required to achieve these goals and there is noted concern about the rapidly narrowing window for raising ambition and implementing commitments.

The Stocktake sets out that there is  a need for deep, rapid, and sustained reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and there is a call for Parties to contribute in-line with the 1.5℃ goal in accordance with their national circumstances.

The report writes of tripling renewable energy capacity globally and doubling the global average annual rate of energy efficiency improvements by 2030. It refers to the phase down of unabated coal power and accelerating efforts towards net zero emission energy systems.

The Stocktake report refers to other methods of reducing emissions including  accelerating zero to low emission technologies that include nuclear, abatement and removal, and low carbon hydrogen production. Provisions of the Stocktake, and High-Level meetings at COP28 discussions also refer to reducing methane emissions, reducing emissions from road transport by the development of zero and low emission vehicles, and the phasing out inefficient fossil fuel subsidies. All are important in understanding the outcomes of COP28 and the context of the First Global Stocktake. It is recognized that the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is not achieved by only one solution. Several methods may be required to meet the Paris Agreement temperature reduction goal.

Another highlight of the Stocktake is material that acknowledges the cost of mitigation technologies such as wind power, solar power and storage have fallen. These findings emphasize there is a pathway to build sustainable models for creating a comprehensive approach to lowering emissions through mitigation, adaptation, finance, technology transfer and capacity building that fits the Paris Agreement temperature goals. The Stocktake notes that this will require increases by Parties in nationally determined contributions, with developed countries taking the lead and developing countries continuing to enhance their mitigation efforts.

5.6 The Goal of Adaptation

The First  Global Stocktake goes on to discuss adaptation. It is noted that several country Parties have submitted adaptation plans or communications. There is a call for Parties that have not yet done so, to have in place their national adaptation plans, policies, and planning processes by 2025 and to have progressed to a stage to implement them by 2030. These adaptation provisions are extensive and should be reviewed in detail as being an integral part of the outcome of the First Global Stocktake.

The Stocktake recognizes the importance of the early warning initiatives that have been undertaken, including the call made by the United Nations Secretary General to the World Meteorological day on 23 March 2022 to protect people on Earth through universal coverage of early warning systems against extreme weather and climate change by 2027, inviting international financial institutions and operating entities of the Financial Mechanism to provide support for the Early Warning Initiative.

Another important provision in the adaptation section is the recognition that  climate change impacts are often transboundary and, as a result, require knowledge sharing and international cooperation to deal with their impacts.

Adaptation provisions include material about implementing integrated multi-sector solutions of land use management, sustainable agriculture, preserving ecosystems building on both available science and Indigenous People’s,  and community knowledge. The provisions cover ocean-based adaptation as well as that of mountain regions.

The Stocktake calls for guidance on adaptation communications to be reviewed in 2025. Overall, there is a call for Parities to increase their ambitions and to conduct assessments of climate hazards, climate change impacts, and by 2030 have in place country-driven, gender responsive, participatory, and fully transparent national adaptation plans. They are also to have their  policy instruments, and planning processes to cover appropriate ecosystems, sectors, people, and vulnerable communities and to be in  a position to move toward implementation of these plans.

5.7 Means of Implementation and Support

Details of financial elements of the first global Stocktake are complex and the  Stocktake document should be reviewed for complete information. This article refers only to a selection of financial matters.

One provision refers to the growing gap between the needs of developing country Parties and sets out currently estimated needs of 5.8 -5.9 trillion USD for the pre-2030 period. It goes on to set out adaptation finance needs of the developing countries to 2030, being USD 215 -387 annually, with USD 5 trillion per year up to 2050, to reach net zero.

The provisions acknowledge the role of public and private sectors in meeting financial needs. The Stocktake reiterates the urgency in addressing these needs and recalls that developed country Parties should continue to take the lead in mobilizing climate finance from a variety of sources.

To achieve financial purposes, in addition to other suggestions, it was urged that operating entities of the Financial Mechanism use their current replenishment, with calls to multilateral development banks and other financial institutions to scale up investments in climate action and calls for a continued increase in the scale and effectiveness of climate finance.

Other items that stood out include the call urging Parties to deliver the USD 100 Billion per year by  developed countries which had been pledged for 2020 but not provided. The Report welcomed ongoing efforts to achieve this goal.

Also, of importance is the reference to reforming multilateral financial architecture including strengthening collaboration of multilateral development banks and developing a new vision of the World Bank for a world free of poverty on a planet that is livable.

5.8 Using Technology and Transfer for Implementation

Technology and transfer is another method to promote implementation of Paris Agreement goals. The Stocktake document refers to the progress of the Technology Mechanism, which is comprised of the Technology Executive Committee and the Climate Technology Center and Network. This includes a work program for 2023 to 2027 to support technology development and transfer through policy recommendations, knowledge sharing, capacity building and technical assistance.

The provisions highlight cooperative action which includes both Party and non-Party stakeholders. In addition to recognizing the importance of capacity building for developing countries and small island developing states, it is considered important to seek innovations in hard to abate sectors for these and other countries.

Another highlight is the initiative on artificial intelligence as a technological tool for advancing and scaling up transformative climate solutions for adaptation and mitigation action in developing countries, with a focus on the least developed countries and small island developing States.

5.9 Capacity Building

The first global Stocktake makes it clear that capacity building is an important goal of the Paris Agreement and recognizes that individual, institutional, and systemic progress in this area has been made since the adaptation of the Paris Agreement.

As part of capacity building, best practices in are recognized. This includes multi-stakeholder engagement, enhancing ownership by beneficiary countries, and sharing experiences and lessons learned, particularly at the regional level. However, gaps are recognized, and coherence and cooperation are encouraged for effective capacity-building. Considered important in building capacity are Local Communities and the Indigenous People’s Platform which are recognized for their climate policies and action.

Developing countries are encouraged to identify their capacity building support needs. The section closed with a request for the Financial Mechanism and the Adaptation Fund to enhance support for capacity building for these countries.

Part 6: Loss and Damage

The Stocktake refers to the terms of Article 8 of the Paris Agreement. Provisions refer to the loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change, recognizing that other factors also contribute to the severity of these impacts. The importance of international and national responses is noted. Also recognized to be important is the  need for improving coherence and synergies between efforts for disaster risk reduction, human assistance, rehabilitation, recovery, and reconstruction, recognizing displacement, relocation, and migration. The section acknowledges that climate change has already caused losses and damage and that, as temperatures rise, the impact of climate and weather extremes  will mean and increase in social, economic, and environmental threat.

COP 28 took positive action to support the loss and damage mandate. At the outset of the conference action taken to contribute to the loss and damage fund set to help vulnerable countries deal with climate change impact.[10] Pledges were made by several countries, the significance of which has been to help rebuild confidence and equity between COP28 Parties.

Part 7: International Cooperation

Section III of the global Stocktake deals with International Cooperation. It reaffirms the commitment to multilateralism and emphasizes the progress made under the Paris Agreement and the unity of Parties for its implementation. It is noted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change in its Sixth Assessment Report that international cooperation is a critical enabler for achieving ambitious climate action. In this mix is the need for international collaboration and transboundary cooperation[11].

There is recognition that climate change cannot be separated from sustainable development and the eradication of poverty. There is also recognition of the important role of non-Party Stakeholders. The report refers to civil society, business, financial institutions, cities, subnational authorities, Indigenous Peoples, local communities, youth, and research institutions. These Stakeholders are recognized for contributing collective progress to the Paris Agreement temperature goal and enhancing climate action.

The importance of leadership and sharing information is applauded in the Stocktake. It is indicated that International cooperation provides a method to promote just transition pathways to achieve the purposes and long-term goals of the Paris Agreement.[12]

Part 8: Closing COP28

The leadership and guidance of the President of COP28 brought climate action forward and built on previous COP pacts, and commitments made since the Paris Agreement. COP28 has built confidence given that 198 Parties were able to reach agreement on an issue of common concern for humanity.

To continue this confidence, it is important to highlight good practices for countries to adopt and engage in international cooperation to achieve these practices. With that, political measures can be put in place to strengthen climate action and enhance support for a world view which follows the goals of the Paris Agreement.

The consensus of transitioning away from fossil fuels will be reviewed at the next Stocktake. As well, future UNFCCC meetings and negotiations will continue what has been started by the COP28 consensus. One will look to major contributors to fossil fuel emissions to update their commitments under the Paris Agreement, and to implement the message provided at COP28 to transition away from fossil fuels.

The word transition sets the stage for moving to methods of clean energy to replace the jobs that have been offered by fossil fuel industries. In this context, the additional words of the COP28 consensus that the transition be just and equitable are of key importance. For example, the words support stopping fossil fuel subsidies and providing incentives for the development of clean energy alternatives. They also support humanitarian considerations in the transition.

Part 9: Looking forward.

9.1  Preparing for future COPs.

The COP28 consensus allows Parties and Non-Party actors to move forward with Paris Agreement goals. COP 28 ended with information that COP29, is scheduled to be held in Baku, Azerbaijan. Announcement was also made that COP30 will be in Belem, Brazil. Both will follow the roadmap set by the COP28 consensus, and the decision to continue contributing to the loss and damage fund.

For the future COPs, the  Stocktake specifies that pursuant to paragraph 25 of decision 1/CP.21, Parties shall submit to the secretariat their next nationally determined contributions at least 9 to 12 months in advance of the seventh session of the Conference of Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement (November 2025) with a view to facilitating the clarity, transparency and understanding of these contributions. Other Stocktake provisions request materials be gender responsive, respect human rights, and empower youth and children.

Additional provisions of the Stocktake provide information about nationally determined contributions with article 170 encouraging Partes to communicate in 2025 their nationally determined contributions with an end date of 2035.

The Stocktake document refers to the potential of a special event to be held under the auspices of the United Nations Secretary General. It also refers to deciding to launch , under the guidance of the fifth, sixth, and seventh sessions of the Conference of Parties a set of activities (“Roadmap to Mission 1.5 ) to significantly enhance international cooperation and an international enabling environment to stimulate ambition for the  next round of nationally determined contributions. The document notes that this decade is critical, and it is important to keep 1.5℃ within reach.

Article 4, paragraph 2, of the Paris Agreement, sets out that each Party shall prepare, communicate, and maintain successive nationally determined contributions it intends to achieve, and that Parties shall pursue domestic mitigation measures, with an aim of achieving the objectives of such contributions. It also  recalls Article 4, paragraph 9 , of the Paris Agreement, that each Party shall communicate a nationally determined contribution every five years in accordance with the decision 1/CP.21 and any relevant decisions of the Conference of Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement and be informed by the outcomes of the global Stocktake.

These crucial provisions form the measurement tools to assess the progress made by Parties to the Paris Agreement objectives. The tools will assess whether the ray of hope provided by COP28 has borne fruit at each upcoming COP and, more importantly, at the next 5 year Global Stocktake

9.2 Getting Ready for the Next Global Stocktake

The First Global Stocktake provides outcomes to suggest three matters that Parties and Non-Party actors can consider important for the next Stocktake. First, to identify the opportunities and challenges for Parties and stakeholders to enhance climate action using a collective process following the key themes of the Paris Agreement, mitigation, adaptation, and finance.[13]

Second, moving forward with  technical developments both for increasing  commitments to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and to manage climate change impacts. COP 28 has provided a blueprint to work with for both factors.

Third, managing the financial needs associated with climate change, both loss and damage and progressive ways of developing programs to build a world respecting biodiversity and ecology.

Part 10: Conclusion

Research conducted for this article shows  the first Global Stocktake of 2023 provides information that countries of the world must increase their commitments to achieve the goals set in the Paris Agreement to limit global emissions to less than 2 °Celsius with a view to achieving 1.5° Celsius. The evaluation of where the world stands eight years after the agreement made in Paris in 2015 can help government policy makers and other stakeholders increase their climate commitments and adopt policies which are designed to meet the goals set by the Paris Agreement.

The COP28 Presidency must be commended for its skill and diplomacy in bringing 198 Parties to consensus in a global Stocktake that provides hope for a future that can meet the goals set out in the Paris Agreement. COP 28 was an event, which has provided the ray of hope required by humanity to move forward in the 21st century. If the phrase, “transition away from fossil fuels” has released the genie of renewable energy from the energy bottle, there is no turning back from the path of transitioning away from fossil fuels and reducing CO2 emissions.

This article concludes with a quotation from Simon Stiell,  the Executive Secretary of the UNFCCC, who explains the process to be followed to achieve the consensus agreement of COP28, and to take Parties and humanity to the next Global Stocktake:

At COP29, governments must establish a new climate finance goal, reflecting the scale and urgency of the climate challenge. And at COP30, they must come prepared with new nationally determined contributions that are economy-wide, cover all greenhouse gases and are fully aligned with the 1.5°C temperature limit. “We must get on with the job of putting the Paris Agreement fully to work” (…). “In early 2025, countries must deliver new nationally determined contributions. Every single commitment – on finance, adaptation, and mitigation – must bring us in line with a 1.5-degree world. [14]

Based on the First Global Stocktake, the COP 28 consensus, and the continued guidance of the UNFCCC, the common concern of humanity has been provided a ray of hope for creating a 1.5-degree world.



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“Https://Unfccc.Int/Sites/Default/Files/Resource/Sb2023_09_adv.Pdf,” n.d.

“Https://Unfccc.Int/Sites/Default/Files/Resource/UserguideGSTsubmissionportal.Pdf,” n.d.

“Https://Unfccc.Int/Topics/Global-Stocktake,” n.d.

“Https://Unfccc.Int/Topics/Global-Stocktake/about-the-Global-Stocktake/Why-the-Global-Stocktake-Is-Important-for-Climate-Action-This-Decade,” n.d.

“Https://Unfccc.Int/Topics/Global-Stocktake/Components-of-the-Global,” n.d.

“Https://Www.Climatelawgovernance.Org/about-Us/,” n.d.

“Https://Www.Cop28.Com/En/Accelerate-Climate-Action-at-Pre-Cop28,” n.d.

“‘Https://Www.Eesi.Org/Articles/View/Looking-to-Cop28-Heres-Where-Key-Past-Cop-Announcements-Stand.,’” n.d.

Https://Www.Eesi.Org/Briefings/View/110723cop, n.d.

“Https://Www.Europarl.Europa.Eu/News/En/Press-Room/20231205IPR15686/Cop28-Climate-Talks-Agree-on-Transitioning-Away-from-Fossil-Fuels#:~:text=Following%20the%20end%20of%20the,Energy%20also%20has%20its%20place.,” n.d.

“Https://Www.Iaea.Org/Newscenter/News/Nuclear-Energy-Makes-History-as-Final-Cop28-Agreement-Calls-for-Faster-Deployment,” n.d.

“Https://Www.Iberdrola.Com/Social-Commitment/What-Is-Multilateralism#:~:text=While%20unilateralism%20is%20when%20one,Sector%20may%20also%20be%20involved.,” n.d.

“Https://Www.Iea.Org/News/the-Energy-World-Is-Set-to-Change-Significantly-by-2030-Based-on-Today-s-Policy-Settings-Alone?Utm_content=bufferfad45&utm_medium=social&utm_source=twitter-Ieabirol&utm_campaign=buffer,” n.d.

“Https://Www.Iea.Org/News/Urgent-Action-to-Cut-Methane-Emissions-from-Fossil-Fuel-Operations-Essential-to-Achieve-Global-Climate-Targets,” n.d.

“Https://Www.Ipcc.Ch/Report/Ar6/Syr/.,” n.d.

“Https://Www,Ipcc.Ch/Report/Ar6/Syr/.,” n.d.

“Https://Www.Nytimes.Com/2023/09/08/Climate/Paris-Agreement-Stocktake.Html.” n.d.

“Https://Www.Theguardian.Com/Profile/Asad-Rehman.” n.d.

“Https://Www.Wrforum.Org/Wrf23/Rethink-the-Value-of-Resources-for-Sustainability-and-Human-Wellbeing/,” n.d.

“Https://Www.Wri.Org/Initiatives/Allied-Climate-Transformation-Act2025/Resources/Addressing-Needs-Climate-Vulnerable-Countries-Cop28,” n.d.

“Https://Www.Wri.Org/Research/State-Climate-Action-2023?Utm_medium=email&utm_source=eventfollowup&utm_campaign=soca,” n.d.

Https://Www.Youtube.Com/Watch?v=g5crNnn7UNY, n.d.

Https://Www.Youtube.Com/Watch?v=H3FxJrxDqsc, n.d.

Https://Www.Youtube.Com/Watch?V=-MWA3fnEIr8, n.d.

“OUR PY  – 2023 DA  – 2023/10/01 TI  – Global Stocktake and beyond JO  – Nature Climate Change SP  – 999 EP  – 999 VL  – 13 IS  – 10 AB  – COP28 Will See the Conclusion of the First Global Stocktake, Which Assesses Efforts towards Long-Term Climate Targets. In Addition to the Assessment Process, the Stocktake Could Also Address Current Problems within Climate Governance and Interact with Other Policy Instruments. SN  – 1758-6798 UR  – Https://Doi.Org/10.1038/S41558-023-01845-8 DO  – 10.1038/S41558-023-01845-8 ID  – Ref1,” n.d.

“U.N. Climate Summit Sets the Stage for Increased Ambition to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions | Press Release | EESI.” Accessed December 17, 2023.

“Unfccc: Cop28 Agreement Signals ‘Beginning of the End’ of the Fossil Fuel Era – Climate Action.” Accessed December 17, 2023.

“Why Does Congress Need to Know about COP28? – Cfegraydon@gmail.Com – Gmail.” Accessed December 17, 2023.

“World Resource Institutehttps://Www.Wri.Org/Events/2023/9/Springboard-Action-Unpacking-Global-Stocktake-Synthesis-Report,” n.d.





[2] Ibid.

[3] Https://

[4] Https://





[7] (



[9] Ibid.

[10] Https://

[11] Https://

[12] (







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